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To facilitate a participatory process, they shall be simple enough to be understood by the design team members across disciplines and roles.By “sitting in the middle” among disciplines and roles, they shall facilitate individuals in sharing primary domain knowledge [15], supporting them in describing what they know about the functional and behavioral characteristics of the PSS.The paper later discusses the validity of the proposed approach and the criticalities of the research design, as well as the opportunity of creating a physical environment to gather the cross-functional design team to negotiate PSS design trade-offs from a value and sustainability viewpoint.The design research methodology (DRM) proposed by Blessing and Chakrabarti [27] was used as the main reference throughout the research.The information they carry needs to be modelled during the evaluation of PSS options [13], so to identify optimal solutions from the perspectives of technological feasibility, user-acceptability, and sustainability [7].

Similarly, modifying the PSS hardware to improve components’ accessibility—so to improve serviceability, maintainability, and changeability—may weaken its construction, thus its performances in operation [11].

After a systematic review of the literature, the paper describes the main results from a multiple case study conducted in collaboration with two Swedish manufacturing companies with experience on PSS design.

Based on these findings, the paper prescribes a five-step iterative process for the systematic assessment of value and sustainability of PSS concepts, which is later applied in the design of a fully electrical load carrier.

By broadening the notion of the system to be optimized, PSS has the potential to create synergies among profit, competitiveness, and environmental benefits that cannot be obtained when focusing on product development only [8].

Yet, not all shifts to PSS result in an improved sustainability profile for manufacturers.

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