Trck dating channel
Sodium hydroxide solutions are most commonly used for polymers.
After short etching, small etch troughs are formed.
(1963) Method of Forming Fine Holes of Near Atomic Dimensions. Ion accelerators provide an immense technological potential for applications.
Young found an explanation for naturally occurring ion tracks in minerals: fission fragments from traces of uranium. (1894) Results of Etch Method in Crystallographic Research (in German). The etching process accentuates the invisible defect raising it to a useful level.
At known uranium concentration, their number density tells about the time when the mineral has solidified from its melt and is used as a geological clock. The acceleration energy of heavy ions exceeds classical techniques by orders of magnitude. They are usually non-conducting and homogeneous down to the molecular scale.
Ion tracks may have been observed unwittingly during the late 19th century by H. In minerals the ion tracks can remain unaltered for millions of years. In comparison with photons and electrons: accelerated ions provide a much higher energy density.
Each track corresponds to exactly one fission fragment. Due to the high energy density of ions many homogeneous dielectric materials are susceptible to selective etching.