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The liberal forces impaled Alvarez's head on a pike as a warning to followers of the Guatemalan caudillo.Carrera and his wife Petrona – who had come to confront Morazán as soon as they learned of the invasion and were in Mataquescuintla – swore they would never forgive Morazán even in his grave; they felt it impossible to respect anyone who would not avenge family members.In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms. S.-backed military coup in 1954 ended the revolution and installed a dictatorship.Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, crime, drug trade, and instability.The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and the calendar did not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them.It was not until 1825 that Guatemala created its own flag.In 1838 the liberal forces of Honduran leader Francisco Morazán and of Guatemalan José Francisco Barrundia invaded Guatemala and reached San Sur, where they executed Chúa Alvarez, father-in-law of Rafael Carrera, then a military commander and later the first president of Guatemala.

Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture.

After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519.

Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic that devastated native populations.

The Captaincy-general was dissolved two years later.

This region was formally a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain throughout the colonial period, but as a practical matter had been administered separately.

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